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Basic Concepts

Fault models have two parts: a state chart that defines components with their various states and specifications that define exactly how the transitions between states work.

What makes modeling systems difficult is that–regardless of what tools or languages you build your model in–you need to simplify some aspects of the system first. Simplify the wrong parts and your model fails to catch real problems.

Fault uses a state chart to create a skeleton structure for the model that defines what parts of the system are relevant and what parts can be simplified. State charts are stored in .fsystem files and are made up of components and states

stock/flow combinations can then be imported from .fspec files and used to define how a component transitions from one state to another. Or they can be run independently as their own stand alone models.

Online REPL

Keeping with the trend of explaining Fault via example models… Let’s suppose we’re going to build an online REPL. People come to our website, enter code into a textarea and click RUN to execute it.

But we want to think through our system and see if our logic makes sense. We’re going to use this architecture as our reference.

Each module in this section is going to go through a different concept in detail. Here’s what the final state chart (.fsystem) file will look like:

system repl;


global record = new cache.record;
global manager = new orchestrator.control;

component replCache = states{
    idle: func{
        advance(this.expired) || advance(this.lookupRecord);
    lookupRecord: func{
            advance(this.returnRecord) || advance(this.createRecord);
    returnRecord: func{
    expired: func{

component containerMng = states{
    idle: func{
    pullContainer: func{
    standUpContainer: func{
    shutdownContainer: func{

start {

And here’s the .fspec files we import

spec cache;

def resources = stock{
    blocks: 0, // Used blocks of memory 
    table: 0, // Number of items in the table

def record = flow{
    machine: new resources,
    lookup: func{
        machine.blocks <- 1;
    release: func{
        machine.blocks -> 1;
    store: func{
        machine.table <- 1;
        machine.blocks <- 1;
    expire: func{
        machine.table -> 1;
        machine.blocks <- 1;

assert resources.blocks < 4;
assert resources.table <= 4;

for 5 init {
    r = new record;
} run { | r.release;
spec orchestrator;

def pool = stock{
    instances: 0,
    loading: 0,

def control = flow{
    p: new pool,
    add: func{
        if p.loading > 0{
            p.loading -> 1;
            p.instances <- 1;
    remove: func{
        p.instances -> 1;
    boot: func{
        p.loading <- 1;

assert pool.instances > 0 eventually-always;

for 3 init { 
    cluster = new control;
} run {
    if cluster.p.instances > 1{

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